Differential phosphorylation determines the repressor and activator potencies of GLI1 proteins and their efficiency in modulating the HPV life cycle
MetadataShow full item record
The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway plays multiple roles during embryonic development and under pathological conditions. Although the core components of the Shh pathway are conserved, the regulation of signal transduction varies significantly among species and cell types. Protein kinases Ulk3 and Pka are involved in the Shh pathway as modulators of the activities of Gli transcription factors, which are the nuclear mediators of the signal. Here, we investigate the regulation and activities of two GLI1 isoforms, full-length GLI1 (GLI1FL) and GLI1ΔN. The latter protein lacks the first 128 amino acids including the conserved phosphorylation cluster and the binding motif for SUFU, the key regulator of GLI activity. Both GLI1 isoforms are co-expressed in all human cell lines analysed and possess similar DNA binding activity. ULK3 potentiates the transcriptional activity of both GLI1 proteins, whereas PKA inhibits the activity of GLI1ΔN, but not GLI1FL. In addition to its well-established role as a transcriptional activator, GLI1FL acts as a repressor by inhibiting transcription from the early promoters of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18). Additionally, compared to GLI1ΔN, GLI1FL is a more potent suppressor of replication of several HPV types. Altogether, our data show that the N-terminal part of GLI1FL is crucial for the realization of its full potential as a transcriptional regulator.
The following license files are associated with this item: