Neuropeptide Y gene variants in obesity, dietary intake, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism: a longitudinal birth cohort study
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Objective: Neuropeptide Y affects several physiological functions, notably appetite regulation. We analysed the association between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the NPY gene (rs5574, rs16147, rs16139, rs17149106) and measures of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: The sample included both birth cohorts of the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study at ages 15 (n = 1075 with available complete data), 18 (n = 913) and 25 (n = 926) years. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used for longitudinal association between NPY SNP-s and variables of interest. Associations at ages 15, 18 and 25 were analysed by ANOVA. Results: Rs5574 CC-homozygotes had a greater increase per year in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a smaller decrease in daily energy intake and carbohydrate intake from age 15 to 25 years; fasting glucose and cholesterol were higher in rs5574 CC-homozygotes. Rs16147 TT homozygotes had higher body weight and a greater increase in sum of 5 skinfolds, waist circumference, WHR and waist-to-height ratio; however, they had lower carbohydrate intake throughout the observation period. Rs16147 TT-homozygotes and both rs16139 and rs17149106 heterozygotes had higher triglyceride levels. All NPY SNP-s were associated with blood pressure: rs5574 TT-and rs16147 CC-homozygotes had a smaller increase in diastolic blood pressure, while rs16139 and rs17149106 heterozygous had lower blood pressure throughout the study. Conclusion: Variants of the NPY gene were associated with measures of obesity, dietary intake, glucose and lipid metabolism and blood pressure from adolescence to young adulthood.
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