|dc.description||The aim of this Bachelorís thesis is to depict the contact of the population of
Estonia with globalizing culture through the television screen - through the picture
the audience receives from the world.
For centuries the Estonian cultural space as well as its entire social space was
influenced by many countries. The most important of them are Russia, Germany and
Sweden. After World War II the ideology of the Soviet Union dominated in Estonia.
At the beginning of the 1990s, after the restoration of independence, the scope of
Estonia's cultural contacts was enlarged and diversified. Public television, the only
TV channel in Estonia, which was a part of the Soviet media system before, was also
released from Gosteleradio.
The object of this research - imported films and serials - is one of the possible
indicators among the others (book translations, guest performances of theatre groups
and musicians), which helps to measure the cultural relations of Estonia.
As to foreign programmes, the Russian influence deeply dominated in 1991. In
addition to Russian programmes some films and shows originating from the Eastern
European countries - Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and
Hungary - were also presented. The percentage of programmes originating from the
Eastern countries amounted to nearly 80%. While today the USA, Great Britain, and
Germany are known as producers of mainly fiction programmes, no films or series of
that genre by these producers were presented in 1991.
Five years later, in 1996, the Estonian television landscape changed
completely. In addition to public broadcasting there were also two commercial
television channels. The best word for describing the programmes was
"Americanisation". More than 55% of programmes originated from the USA despite
the ownership of the channels. Australian, Venezuelan and Argentinean everyday
series were also very popular. Furthermore, in 1996 another important change
occurred - all programs of Russian and Eastern European origin were almost entirely
excluded from the programme.
Speaking about the latest period of 2003-04, the television landscape can be
characterised as stabilized. Due to the regulations of the audiovisual politics of the
European Union an increasing number of programmes is purchased from the
European countries. Although the number of programmes originating from the USA
has not decreased, the percentage of local and European programmes has increased.
As to the origin of the programmes shown on Estonian television channels, the most
prevailing countries are the USA (40%), Great Britain (10%), France (9%), and
Germany (5%) - altogether 33 countries from all over the world. It can only mean that
programmes on Estonian television channels have become more open and diversified.
Thus, the influence of Eastern countries, which dominated in the cultural space
of Estonia before the restoration of independence has rapidly changed ever since and
at the moment the influence of Western countries is prevailing. Although the cultural
space of Estonia has always been influenced inter alia by Nordic countries, the
influence of the Nordic countries is small based on foreign programmes as an
indicator. Only a few Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian or Danish programmes were
shown during the period of 1991-2004. However, the countries, which have
influenced the cultural space of Estonia in the most stable manner over the years,
regarding only one of the possible indicators - foreign programmes on Estonian
national television channels - are Great Britain, Germany and France but the most
prevailing of them is still the USA.||