Väärtusorientatsioonid keskkonnaküsimuste kajastamisel Eesti Päevalehes ja Postimehes 1995-2010
Current bachelor thesis is written on “Representation of environmental orientations in values based on Eesti Päevaleht and Postimees 1995-2010”. The main purpose was to find out the orientations in values in the articles covering the environmental issues and their changes during 1995-2010 based on newspapers Eesti Päevaleht and Postimees. In theory part the overview on the influences and roll of media are given along with the overview on schools of different value studies and about values in Estonian society. The content analysis was chosen as study method and the selection was made by following issuing years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. The contrived method of days was used for covering all weekdays (except Sundays as the newspapers are not published) and months. From those editions the articles on relationships expressing the human and the environment were searched, the total research included 943 analyse units. Different orientations in values were 15 in total (see coding manual) and in the result analyses they were divided into groups of 2 different environmental paradigms (environmental and ecological). The main difference between those 2 paradigms is the reflexivity. The environmental paradigm tries to approach problems mechanically meaning the issues are seen simplified (technical) and the solutions for those would be for example improving technologies. Ecological paradigm is based on the idea that environmental issues are complex, multi-meaningful and cover different values. Current research can be viewed based on both paradigms because they both are mechanical and reflex and can be used with different motives. That is reason why their change in time was checked separately. The research gave the outcome that during 1995-2010 the representation of environmental issues has grown in linear-mechanical approach that is the environmental issues are represented in 2 newspapers in the light of economical, technical and management view. The representation of environmental issues as separate subject has also increased which is partly in opposition with reflexivity approach as it follows environment as a separate subject however enables to investigate this in deeper level, supporting also the possible input into modern politics. From the years of 1995-2000 the resource based subjects are quite visibly represented as expected. The great part of this refers to production and economical approach as the dominating factor in society. The reason for this can be explained by the poor economical situation during that period. In 2005 starts the consumer based phase in both newspapers, which can be explained as the society’s growth of wealth and with the orientation towards individuality and enjoyment. In 2010 the mechanical and resource based approach is again more visible most likely due to the recession in economy. The research pointed out that the changes of orientations in values represented in media can be influenced in great deal of economic situation. The worse the economic situation is the more deficiency values (wealth) are valued like based on Ingelhart and with the growth of wealth the more consumer-based orientations are represented in media. The reason may lie that relevant wealth has given the opportunity for humans to satisfy the consumer needs after tough transition period, which is also represented in journalism. Based on Ingelhart humans start to value more the clean environment (Kalmus & Vihalemm 2004: 31). If the reason for the importance behind the nature subjects can be bound with Ingelhart’s approach is yet unclear. Based on the current research data it can be said that the representation of the nature subjects has grown in media due to the damages caused by nature itself. The quality text analyses would give more appropriate and clear picture on this.
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