CROATIA. Critical junctures in the media transformation process.
The present study details the critical junctures in the transformations of risks and opportunities in the four domains of media systems – the Legal and ethical environment, Journalism, Media usage, and Media-related competencies domain – that are expected to contribute to or deter from deliberative communication. Study includes a background chapter on social and political changes that influenced the four key domains Croatia. The study is based on the literature and other data sources identified in Case study 1 “Risks and Opportunities Related to Media and Journalism Studies (2000–2020). Case Study on National Research and Monitoring Capabilities”, but goes beyond it by offering an in-depth analyses of changes within each domain and identifying the actors behind them. Legal framework in Croatia is in most respects in accordance with European standards, but a degree of conflicting legislation exists regarding defamation offences. Frequent legislative changes (although most without a change of direction) show that a coherent policy-led system has not yet materialized. Evidence of hybridity of the media system is seen in media and related practices, which take place in a diverse yet highly concentrated media system, most similar to the Mediterranean polarized pluralist media system model from the Hallin and Mancini (2004) typology. Media-related competencies and media literacy appear to be higher in some areas and population groups than in others. Journalism market is diverse although subject to economic constrictions as well as pressures on journalists in the form of many SLAPP lawsuits.