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dc.contributor.authorNõmmela, Mari
dc.date.accessioned2013-08-13T07:03:37Z
dc.date.available2013-08-13T07:03:37Z
dc.date.issued2013-08-13
dc.identifier.isbn978–9949–32–356–2 (trükis)
dc.identifier.isbn978–9949–32–357–9 (PDF)
dc.identifier.issn1406–443X
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10062/32234
dc.description.abstract20. sajandil püsis Eesti kunstiteaduse ees marksistlikus paradigmas lahendamist nõudev küsimus: kuidas kirjutada ajalugu? Pärast II maailmasõda asuti koos Eesti ajalooga marksistlikult ümber kirjutama rahvuslikku kunstiajalugu. Eesti kunstiajalookirjutus kujunes 1918–1940 skandinaavia ajaloolaste juhtimisel. Uurimistöös tugineti varasemale baltisaksa ajalootundmisele, mis nõudis allikakriitilist lähenemist ning kunstimälestiste inventeerimisele muinsuskaitsealases töös. Saksa, vene, hiljem ka prantsuse jt materjalide kasutamisega kaasnesid tõlkimise- ja esitusviisiprobleemid. Eesti kunsti asuti käsitlema stiiliajalooliselt euroopaliku kunsti kontekstis. Nõukogude Liidu anneksiooniga alanud sovetiseerimisprotsess tõi kaasa rahvusliku kultuuri katkestuse. Nõukogude kultuurimudelis teenis ajalookirjutus poliitilist eesmärki ja uus ajalookäsitlus tähendas minevikuhinnangut poliitiliste revolutsioonidega sotsiaalse ajaloo taustal. Marksistlikuks nimetatud ajaloopilt pidi vastama Nõukogude historiograafias kinnistunud seisukohtadele. Üleliidulise parteipoliitika poolt suunatud Eesti ajaloo ümberhindamise ja -kirjutamiseprotsessi mõjutasid olupoliitika, kultuuripoliitilised nihked, tsensuur jm. Marksistlike tõdede järgimine sai kohustuslikuks ka Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli kunstiajaloo professorile Voldemar Vagale, kes enne sõda oli töötanud ülikooli kunstiajaloo kabinetis. Varasematel aastatel enam uurijana kui ajalootõlgendajana tuntud V. Vaga oli seni järginud kunstiajaloo kirjutamisel stiiliajaloolist käsitlust. Uurimistöö jätkamine sundkohanemise tingimustes sõjajärgse marksistliku ajalookirjutusega eeldas stiiliajaloolise ja marksistliku ajalookäsitluse probleemi lahendamist. Professor Voldemar Vaga kaasati ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia Ajaloo Instituudi uurimistegevuse kaudu Hans Kruusi poolt juhitud Eesti ajaloo kirjutamisse. Küsimus kunstiajaloolase akadeemilise uurimistöö metodoloogilistest puudujääkidest peegeldab eesti kunstiajalookirjutuse sundkohanemist marksismi-leninismiga. Voldemar Vaga jäi seotuks kahe ajaloouurimise keskusega – ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia Ajaloo Instituudiga ja ENSV Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli NSV Liidu ajaloo kateedriga kuni 1980. aastate lõpuni. Tema nõukogude perioodi uurimistööde põhjal on võimalik jälgida marksistliku käsitluse juurdumist. Professor V. Vagal tuli teha kompromisse erinevatel poliitilistel ajajärkudel nii ametialaselt kui ajalookirjutuses. Pärast Stalini isikukultuse aastate repressioone oli Voldemar Vaga tajunud sovetiseerimise kaugeleulatuvaid tagajärgi ja püüdnud jätkata ideoloogilise surve tingimustes rahvusliku alatooniga konservatiivset kunstiajalookirjutust, pidades olulisemaks lünkade täitmist eesti kunsti ajaloos. Tema kunstiajalooline „tõde“ jäi 1960.–1980. aastatel erialaspetsiifiliselt suletud stiiliajalooliseks tõeks ja marksistliku käsitlusega formaalselt seotuks.et
dc.description.abstractLike the whole history of Estonia, the national art history was also rewritten after the Second World War according to Marxist principles. The Estonian art historians faced the question: how to write history using the Marxist paradigm? From 1918 to 1940, the Estonian art history writing had been shaped by Estonian art historians under the guidance of Scandinavian historians. Historical research was based on German history writing, archive sources and listing of architectural monuments for heritage protection purposes. When writing general art history, German, Russian, later also French and other materials were used, which caused translation and presentation problems. Attempts were made to treat the stylistic history of Estonian art in the context of European art. After the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union in 1940, the development of national culture was interrupted by the Sovietisation process. In the Soviet cultural model, history writing had to serve a political aim. The Marxist image of history had to comply with the entrenched positions of Soviet historiography. The new historical narrative meant reappraisal of the past of the national culture, the background to which was supposed to be social history with political revolutions. The process of reappraisal and rewriting of Estonian history, prescribed by the policy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, depended on the shifts in cultural policy, opportunist relations, censorship, etc. Following of Marxist truths also became mandatory for Voldemar Vaga, Art History Professor at Tartu State University, who, before the war, had worked at the art history library at the University of Tartu. Being known as a researcher rather than an interpreter of history in previous years, V. Vaga had followed the style-historical treatment in writing the national art history. Continuation of research after the war, in the conditions of compulsory adaptation to Marxist history writing, presumed solving the conflict between the two opposing treatments of history. The question about methodological shortcomings in V. Vaga’s academic research reflects the problems of Estonian art history writing when forced to become adapted to Marxism-Leninism. In the years of Stalin's personality cult, Professor V. Vaga was included in the team led by Professor H. Kruus to write the history Estonia as part of the research activities of the Institute of History at the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. He also continued writing on art history, working until the late 1980s for two centres of historical research – the Institute of History at the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR and the Department of History of the USSR at Tartu State University. Based on his research papers written in the Soviet period, it is possible to follow the entrenchment of the Marxist approach in Estonian art history writing. Under ideological pressure, Professor V. Vaga had to make compromises in different political periods in both his administrative duties and art history writing. After the repressions in the years of Stalin's personality cult and experiencing the far-reaching consequences of Sovietisation, Voldemar Vaga continued conservative art history writing with a national undertone, considering his most important task to fill the gaps in the history of Estonian art. In his writings from the 1960s-1980s the history writer’s (art) historical truth remained style-historical truth, which was isolated into his speciality, although formally related to Marxist ideology. Overcoming the conflict between the Marxist and style-historical approaches in Professor V. Vaga’s academic research lasted for a several decades. Along with becoming accustomed to the dictate of the Marxist historical narrative, the researcher was also forced to become socially adjusted to the Soviet environment. History writing is the result of social processes. Resolution of the conflict between style-historical and Marxist approaches in art history writing in the Soviet period exemplifies a case of actualisation of the Estonian national-conservative art awareness in the second half of the 20th century.en
dc.language.isoetet
dc.relation.ispartofseriesDissertationes historiae Universitatis Tartuensis;31
dc.subjectkunstiteaduset
dc.subjectkunstiajaluguet
dc.subjectkunstikriitikaet
dc.subjectkunstiteadlasedet
dc.subjectkunstiajaloolasedet
dc.subjectnõukogude aeget
dc.subjectEestiet
dc.subject20. saj II poolet
dc.subjectscience of arten
dc.subjecthistory of arten
dc.subjectart criticismen
dc.subjectart scholarsen
dc.subjectart historiansen
dc.subjectEstoniaen
dc.subjectsoviet perioden
dc.subjectsecond half of 20th centuryen
dc.subject.otherdissertatsioonidet
dc.subject.otherETDen
dc.subject.otherdissertationen
dc.subject.otherväitekiriet
dc.titleStiiliajaloolise ja marksistliku käsitluse konflikt Voldemar Vaga kunstiajalookirjutuses 20. sajandi II poolelet
dc.title.alternativeConflict between the style-historical and Marxist treatments in Voldemar Vaga's writings on art in the second half of the 20th centuryen
dc.typeThesiset


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