Against the thallasocracy: fascism and traditionalism in Alexander Dugin’s neo-Eurasianist philosophy
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This thesis discusses the ideological makeup of the Russian right wing philosopher Alexander Dugin. Tracing Dugin’s ideological influences from early Eurasianism, the European New Right and esoteric religious beliefs such as Perennial Traditionalism, the thesis then goes on to place Dugin’s body of thought within a larger debate on defining fascism and whether Dugin can be considered a fascist. The thesis emphasizes that Dugin’s Neo-Eurasianist imperial project disqualifies him from any typical fascist taxonomy. Instead, Neo- Eurasianism represents a genuinely unique strain of extreme right wing thought that, though shares many similarities with historic fascism, nonetheless cannot be considered fascist due to Dugin’s profoundly anti-modern vision and the supranational emphasis of his imperial objectives in which Russia plays a major role - but a role that places the Russian nation in a greater cultural, geographical, and civilizational identity. Ultimately this thesis contests some scholars’ interpretations of Dugin’s worldview as a fundamentally ethnocentric or even racist Russian nationalism. Rather, this thesis argues that Dugin holds a fundamentally religious understanding of reality that sees nations as manifestations of a spiritual, rather than a biological, essence. Thus it precludes Dugin from any purely biological racism. à la National Socialism.