Empowerment of Domestic Stakeholders: From Outcome-oriented to Processoriented Europeanization in the ENP Countries
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This chapter examines the strategies of the European Union (EU) that aim at promoting institutional reforms in neighbouring countries such as Ukraine. It particularly addresses the question why does rule convergence vary at the sectoral level in Ukraine. It argues that EU policies are more efficient if they aim at flexible adaptation of rules to local needs and empower domestic actors to actively participate in reforms. However, the EU’s dominant approach instead promotes institutional monocropping and reinforces the capacities of the entrenched elites, which aim at the preservation of the status quo. The EU’s strategies are analyzed regarding the examples of anti-corruption reforms in the migration and environmental sectors in Ukraine.