Alevis in contemporary Izmir: imaginaries, beliefs and practices regarding Hacı Bektaş Veli

dc.contributor.advisorRaudvere, Catharina, juhendaja
dc.contributor.advisorSüld, Elo, juhendaja
dc.contributor.authorHaas, Helen
dc.contributor.otherTartu Ülikool. Humanitaarteaduste ja kunstide valdkondet
dc.date.accessioned2023-07-07T06:41:13Z
dc.date.available2023-07-07T06:41:13Z
dc.date.issued2023-07-07
dc.description.abstractAleviidid on Euroopa diasporaas leidnud tunnustust religioosse vähemusgrupina kui eraldiseisev religioon, kuid Türgis jäänud „heterodokse“ islami ja „rahvausu“ staatusesse. Kui aleviitide ajaloolised juured ulatuvad sajandite taha, mil lahvatas Osmanite Türgi ja Safaviidide Iraani sõjaline vastasseis, siis tänapäevane eneseteadlikkus sai alguse 1990te alguses, mil hakati rääkima nn alevi ärkamisest. Sellest alates on tegeletud muu seas ka religioosse enesemääramise ja identiteedi küsimustega. Izmiris asuv aleviitide kogukond, mille juured ulatuvad Ida-Türgi provintidesse ja kus on esindatud nii türgi kui ka kurdi emakeelega aleviidid, peavad ennast autentse ja moonutamata islami esindajateks, kes on saanud oma teadmised pärandiks prohvet Muhamedi järglaste poolt hoolikalt põlvest-põlve edasiantu kaudu. Tänu linnastumisele ja migratsioonile on Alevi kogukonnasisene omamoodi kastisüsteem, kus ühelt poolt eristatakse vaimsete juhtidena prohvetist põlvnevaid pühasid vereliine ja teisalt nende järgijad, muutunud, kuid mitte kadunud. Kehtima on jäänud reegel, et vaimulikku tarkust tohib jagada vaid pühade vereliinide järeltulija, keda on Izmiri alevi kogukonnas täna rohkesti esindatud. Tänu sellele on kogukonna poolt ehitatud kogunemismajas (cemevi) toimumas lisaks aktiivsele kultuurielule ka regulaarselt alevi jumalateenistused (ayin-i cem). Üks prohveti järeltulijatest, kes elas 13. saj Kapadookia lähistel, on Hacı Bektâş Veli. Tema traditsiooniline elulugu ja õpetussõnad on omandanud Izmiris pühakirja staatuse, mida tsiteeritakse rohkem kui koraani. Algselt Bektaši vennaskonna rajaja ja šeik, omandas ta aja jooksul pühaku staatuse, kellest on tänaseks kujunenud pühakute pühak ja tähtsaim imetegija paljude aleviitide seas. Izmiris on tema staatus võrreldav imaam Ali ja 12 imaami staatusega, teda peetakse nende taaskehastuseks. Teisalt peetakse aga näiteks Mustafa Kemal Atatürki omakorda pühaku taaskehastuseks. Sekulaarse Türgi vabariigi luues, mil keskaegseid müstikuid hakati propageerima kui humaniste ja filosoofe, ei ole Bektaşi tähtsust pühakuna vähendanud. Pigem on see Bektaşi mõju ja haaret pühakuna laiendanud, lisades talle kaasaeges Izmiris oma ajast ees elanud ja ajastute ülese väljavalitud teadmamehe kuulsuse. Izmiris leidub ka uskumust, et Bektaş on jumala maine ilming. Sellest tulenevalt on palverännakud tema hauale Hacıbektaş´s olulisel kohal, seda linna nimetatakse „meie Mekaks“ tuues sisse terava vastandumise „ortodokse“ islami ja selle traditsioonidega. Hacı Bektaş Veli kultus, milles väljenduvad alevi „tee“ peamised põhimõtted, on tõusnud erineva tagapõhjaga aleviitide ühendavaks lüliks ja religioosse eneseväljenduse vahendiks.et
dc.description.abstractAlevis are recognized in the European diaspora as a religious minority group and a separate religion; however, in Turkey, they have remained in the status of "heterodox" Islam and "folk religion". While the historical roots of Alevis reach the military confrontation between Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Iran, modern self-awareness began to take shape in the early 1990s, when the so-called Alevi revival broke. Since then, among other issues, religious self-determination and identity questions have been continuously discussed among the Alevis. The Alevi community in Izmir, originating in the provinces of Eastern Turkey and representing Turkish and Kurdish Alevis, considers itself to represent authentic and unadulterated Islam. This original Islam and true knowledge is seen as inherited through careful transmission by the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad to their followers. Due to urbanization and migration, a unique spiritual leader-follower relationship, where on the one hand, holy bloodlines descended from the Prophet as spiritual leaders and on the other hand, their followers are distinguished, has changed but not disappeared. Spiritual guidance is still permitted only to the descendants of the holy bloodlines, which are abundantly represented in the community of Izmir today. According to this, in addition to the active cultural life, ritual gatherings (ayin-i cem) occur regularly in the community's assembly house (cemevi). One of the descendants of the Prophet who lived near Cappadocia in the 13th century is Hacı Bektaş Veli. His traditional biography and teachings have acquired the status of holy scripture in Izmir, quoted more than the Koran. Initially the founder and sheik of the Bektashi brotherhood, he became a saint over time, becoming the saint of saints and the most crucial miracle worker among many Alevis. In Izmir, his position is comparable to that of Imam Ali and the 12 Imams; he is considered their reincarnation. Also, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, for example, is occasionally regarded as the reincarnation of the saint. The creation of a secular Turkish republic, when medieval mystics were promoted as humanists and philosophers, did not diminish Bektaş's importance as a saint. Instead, according to the findings in Izmir, it has expanded Bektaş's influence and reach as a saint, giving him the fame of a chosen one and a wise man who lived ahead of his time. In Izmir, there is also a belief in Bektaş as a manifestation of God. As a result, pilgrimages to his tomb in Hacıbektaş are an essential part of contemporary Alevi religious life; this small town is considered "our Mecca", an attitude that introduces a sharp contrast with "orthodox" Islam and its traditions. The cult of Hacı Bektaş Veli, through which the main principles of the Alevi "path" are reflected, has become a connecting link and a means of religious self-expression for Alevis of different backgrounds.en
dc.description.urihttps://www.ester.ee/record=b5567371et
dc.identifier.isbn978-9916-27-265-7
dc.identifier.isbn978-9916-27-266-4 (pdf)
dc.identifier.issn1406-2410
dc.identifier.issn2806-2639 (pdf)
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10062/91385
dc.language.isoenget
dc.relation.ispartofseriesDissertationes theologiae Universitatis Tartuensis;47
dc.rightsopenAccesset
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/*
dc.subjectIslamen
dc.subjectmysticsen
dc.subjectsaintsen
dc.subjectIzmiren
dc.subjectTurkeyen
dc.subject.otherdissertatsioonidet
dc.subject.otherETDet
dc.subject.otherdissertationset
dc.subject.otherväitekirjadet
dc.subject.otherHacı Bektaş Veli, 1209-1271
dc.subject.otherislamet
dc.subject.othermüstikaet
dc.subject.othermüstikudet
dc.subject.otherpühakudet
dc.subject.otherIzmiret
dc.subject.otherTürgi (riik)et
dc.titleAlevis in contemporary Izmir: imaginaries, beliefs and practices regarding Hacı Bektaş Veliet
dc.title.alternativeAlevi kogukond kaasaegses Izmiris: ettekujutused, uskumused ja praktikad seoses Hacı Bektaş Veli’gaet
dc.typeThesiset

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