Differences in self-evaluations of male and female students of the institutes of higher education of Estonia



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My aim in the present seminar paper was to find out whether the scores for males and females differ in academic and general self-efficacy, and in extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Self-evaluations where measured with the academic self-efficacy scale (Üpraus, 2009), the Estonian version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (Rimm and Jerusalemm, 1999) and the Estonian version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS-C 28) (Mägi, 2011). I used the SPSS program for my data analysis. The results showed that compared to males, females’ extrinsic motivation is significantly higher. The effect size is d=-0.416. Also females have higher intrinsic motivation than males. The effect size is d=-0.348. Additionally, females had higher mean level of academic self-efficacy than males. The effect size is d=-0.307. Only in general self-efficacy there were no significant gender differences found. Effect size is d=0.295.Possible reasons for the results are discussed and also the possibilities for further research.