The role of NGOs and INGOs as norm advocates in Turkey’s climate change policies



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This thesis focuses on the role of climate NGOs and INGOs as advocates of international climate change norms in Turkey's climate change policies. The study seeks to analyze how international climate change norms affect and internalize national policies through NGOs and INGOs. For this purpose, the spiral model from a constructivist approach to norm literature has been applied to the field of climate change in this study. To investigate the impact of international climate change norms on the historical development of Turkey's climate change policies and the role of NGOs/INGOs, data collected from multiple sources were analyzed using qualitative research methods. The study concluded that, according to the theoretical model, the internalization process of international climate change norms in Turkey's national policies has not been completed. Climate change norms have reached the prescriptive status phase in Turkey's climate change policies but have not yet become a consistent-rule behavior in the national political structure. In addition, it has emerged that the role played by NGOs and INGOs for the compliance and internalization of international norms in Turkey's climate change policies can be considered in two dimensions. On the one hand, NGOs and INGOs have been identified as playing an effective and direct role as norm advocates in Turkey's domestic climate change policies and other relevant domestic policy areas. On the other hand, in the findings of this thesis, it has been determined that NGOs and INGOs have an indirect and limited effect on Turkey's access to international climate change policies and agreements.