Rahvusvaheliste suhete ja regiooni uuringute õppekava magistritööd – Master´s theses

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    Revisionist challenges to pacifist state?: Attempts to change Japan's foreign policy identity during Abe Shinzo's premiership
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Sagawa, Yoshiko; Berg, Eiki, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    Japan’s foreign policy identity and security posture have been mostly discussed with either material or ideational factors. However, this ‘either/or’ rationale does not explain the contradiction of Japan being a pacifist state while having leaders with revisionist ambitions, especially after the end of the Cold War. Focusing on Abe’s security policy, chiefly the controversial adoption of the limited right to Collective Self-Defense (CSD), publicly introduced in 2014 and enacted in 2015, this study aims to comprehend the dialectic relation between material and ideational factors in Japan’s foreign policy identity. While Abe has been regarded as a revisionist challenger to Japan’s pacifism, how was the security policy reasoned for its successful adoption, despite the society’s support of the pacifist norm? To answer this, critical discourse analysis, a method that enables context-sensitive research while focusing on agency or power relations, has been conducted. The analysis has found that Abe’s discourse has created a momentum of ‘change’ by introducing a new common sense of ‘active posture for achieving peace.’ Abe reasoned the adoption of the CSD, undoubtedly a revisionist change in the means, as a minimum necessary extension for achieving the conventional purpose of the pacifist norm - enhancing deterrence and avoiding Japan’s war engagement. Thus, Abe’s security policy is a revisionist change within the framework of pacifism. Significantly, the study shows that the material interest of revisionism - proactive redistribution of resources - and the ideational interest of pacifism - upholding the pacifist norm - are both crucial in Japan’s foreign policy identity.
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    From austerity to solidarity? German discourse about common debt during the Eurocrisis and the Covid-19 pandemic
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Rehmert, Piet; Ehin, Piret, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    In the wake of unprecedented challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, the European Union member states collectively agreed on introducing common debt in 2020. In light of Germany’s pivotal role for the agreement, this thesis explores Germany’s policy shift from opposing collective borrowing during the eurocrisis a decade ago to endorsing common debt as a unified response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Using discursive institutionalism, the study introduces two variables: the status-quo bias of decision-makers and persuasion in discourse. Focusing on the two initial periods during both crises, the discourse in Germany is analyzed following a comparative research design. Critical Interpretive Synthesis and Critical Discourse Analysis are applied to examine scholarly articles and interviews, speeches, statements, position papers and newspaper editorials. The empirical analysis reveals that fewer different ideas for a common European policy response were presented in the German discourse during the Covid-19 pandemic compared to the eurocrisis. This prevented choice overload, weakening the status-quo bias of decision-makers and facilitating policy change in form of introducing common debt. Further, results show that proponents of collective borrowing discursively aligned the policy outcome of common debt with the ideas of opposed actors during the Covid-19 pandemic, but not the eurocrisis. Employing this strategy increased the persuasion of proposals for common debt. The thesis concludes that Germany’s policy shift is a result of a weaker status-quo bias of decision-makers and increased persuasion by proponents of common debt. The presentation of novel insights into the mechanisms and factors that determine how ideas and discourse influence policy-making provides an alternative explanation to account for policy continuity and change. For policy-makers, the findings come with valuable implications by demonstrating opportunities to strategically alter the status-quo bias of decision-makers and increase the own persuasiveness in discourse. Study limitations in comparability, transferability and causality provide points of departure for further research.
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    Collective security with(out)collective action? A comparative analysis of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (in)action upon requests for intervention by its member states
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Lopes de Castro Barbosa, Pedro; Pääbo, Heiko, juhendaja; Libman, Alexander, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is an Eurasian military alliance created in 2002. On one hand the Organization was developed with the aim to counter threats present in the region; on the other, its members continue to struggle with a plethora of state, transnational and domestic menaces. Thus, in four instances its members requested military assistance: Kyrgyzstan in 2010, Tajikistan in 2021, Kazakhstan and Armenia in 2022. However, only in the case of Kazakhstan CSTO granted its request and intervened. As a result, one might wonder why the organization is unable to provide effective security to its members besides their own requests of help. Hence, this thesis attempts to find explanations for ineffectiveness in alliances built on collective defense mechanisms. With this aim, this qualitative work makes a comparative analysis of the cases, using the Most Similar System Designs (MSSD) in order to trace a pattern which explains the observed divergent outcomes. Consequently, interviews with seven experts were made in order to gather data for the analysis. The MSSD analysis spotted four relevant factors, with two of them being determinant for the outcomes. Nonetheless, an alternative analysis, unable to be done with the same design, had other significant findings. By utilizing the rationalist approach of International Relations theory in order to interpret the results, the research showed two complementary rather than differing frameworks: the first which focused on the common consideration of threat by the alliance as well as the Russian interest in the matter, and the second concentrated on the other member states’ interests and in the context they operate. This thesis concludes that the best explanation consists of binding those two approaches in order to provide an answer for the research question.
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    Foreign policy analysis of Georgia (2016-2023) - what explains the shifts in Georgia’s foreign policy directions? A two-level analysis
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Mtchedlidze, Giorgi; Braghiroli, Stefano, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    Georgia, the eastern European country situated at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, has often been praised for its ambitious democratic reforms, fighting corruption and developing economy during the last two decades. The Western community has broadly recognised Georgia’s democratic achievement. Against the background of Russia’s aggressive policy, Georgia’s foreign course has sharply been directed to alignment policy toward the West, particularly aspiring to NATO and EU integration, to secure itself from the hostile neighbour, which occupies nearly 20% of Georgian territories. Georgia has reached significant practical achievements in the Euro-Atlantic integration process under the incumbent government since 2012. Georgia was the leader in its democratic achievements among the Eastern-Partnership countries. However, the Georgian government’s latest practical action, statements, and anti-Western rhetoric, has questioned its existing Western-oriented foreign policy direction. Furthermore, Georgia deepened its ties with Russia, and the ruling party’s authorities avoided its criticism publicly. The fact that the alleged shift in Georgia's foreign policy direction is relatively new refers to the lack of academic literature that seeks to study this shift comprehensively. Therefore, this thesis addresses the research puzzle and asks two questions: How has Georgia's foreign policy changed from 2016 to 2023, and which factors are behind it? For this aim, primary and secondary sources will be analysed through the explanatory outcome process tracing method, allowing us to answer the research questions. Hermann’s theory of redirection and Holsti’s theory of restructuring will enrich the analysis to detect the level of the change and identify the critical triggers behind it on a domestic and international level.
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    Why opt for military drones in case of superiority in air space? The case of the second Karabakh war (2020)
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Beruashvili, Levan; Berg, Eiki, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This thesis analyses the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in 2020, and it will examine the historical context of the first Karabakh War as well in order to understand the root causes of the conflict. The particular focus will be on the thesis question: Why opt for military drones in case of superiority in air space? In order to answer the question of this research, three theoretical approaches will be used. The balance of power theory explains the imbalances in power when we compare both countries' military expenditures and military capabilities, especially when we are talking about airspace superiority. The military cost and benefit analysis explains cost-related aspects of why it is better to use drones instead of conventional aircraft, and the military strategic theory explains what, why and how were used in order to achieve success and minimise costs. The national security strategy documents of Azerbaijan and Armenia were also analysed briefly in order to understand how both countries perceived the incoming threats and approached the war.
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    EU internal borders and voting behaviour in European parliament elections
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Simon, Kilian; Ehin, Piret, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This thesis investigates the impacts of the European Union's open border policy on voting behaviour, focusing on vote choice and turnout rates in European Parliament elections within internal EU border regions. This research contributes to the electoral voting behaviour debates, border studies as well as transactionalism and European identity literature, by analysing how the open border policy influences behaviour in EP elections. Thereby enriching the discourses by integrating a spatial dimension related to proximity to internal EU borders to the debates. The central research question examines potential disparities between EU internal border regions and non-border regions in voter turnout and vote choice during the 2019 European Parliament election. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested employing a multi-level regression analysing election data from 1060 NUTS 3 regions across 19 EU member states. Contrary to expectations, the results do not support any of the hypotheses. Proximity to a border does not significantly impact Europhile or Eurosceptic voting behaviour, challenging assumptions about the influence of border adjacency on voting tendencies. The study also reveals a decreased emphasis on EU affairs in border regions during elections and lower voter participation, challenging assumptions about the prioritization of EU integration as a policy issue. These findings suggest that factors beyond geographic proximity to borders play a more dominant role in shaping voting behaviours in EU border regions.
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    Negotiations in the Yemen conflict and their effect on humanitarian aid
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2024) Boriero, Julia Rita; Kursani, Shpend, juhendaja; Abalkina, Anna, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
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    The influence of historical master narratives on the public perception of war: the case of Russia during the invasion of Ukraine
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Petrov, Vladimir; Pääbo, Heiko, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
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    Case studies of recent Russian aggressive actions in Ukraine, Russian security-related acts in Estonia, and a discourse analysis of the effects Russian aggression in Ukraine have had on Estonian discourses and policy
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2022) Beall, William Henry Klihr; Wilson, Andrew, juhendaja; Makarychev, Andrey, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This master’s thesis explores gaps in research regarding the effects Russian aggression in Ukraine have had on high-level Estonian political and security discourses, and in effect, policy. Furthermore, the recent full-scale invasion of Ukraine and its effects on Estonia were examined in detail. One of the striking discoveries of this thesis was that Estonia, even though it is a small country, is particularly assertive regarding its neighbour Russia when it comes to security issues, as Estonia is fully aware that they could lose their democratic society if they are Russia’s next target after Ukraine. The aim of the thesis was not only to evaluate Russian aggression in Ukraine, and Russian-Estonian security problems, but also to understand the effects Russian aggression in Ukraine have had on Estonia. These effects were found in publicly available discourse of high level Estonian political figures and Estonian defence documents, that others have not yet analysed, and a direct correlation was seen between Russian aggression in Ukraine and changes to Estonian security policy. Furthermore, these events sparked debate in Estonia on how to deter Russian aggression. While exploring George F. Kennan’s famous theory of containment, striking similarities were found between the political culture of Soviet Russia and Putin’s regime. Furthermore, Kennan’s containment theory was found to remain relevant, as Estonia today has also encouraged a policy of containing Russia by encouraging cooperation with allies, the applying of sanctions to deter negative behaviour by Russia, adjusting Estonian security policies, and inviting NATO contingents on Estonian soil.
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    Decoding Turkish foreign policy in Abkhazia (2008-2022). A theory-testing process tracing approach to understanding Turkish actions in Georgia’s contested break-away region
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Runkel, William Porter; Vits, Kristel, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    Over the past three decades, the foreign policy of Türkiye towards its near-abroad regions, consisting of the Caucuses, Black Sea, Middle East, Africa, and the Mediterranean, has taken on remarkably assertive characteristics. The interventionist turn has resulted in engagements and disputes with numerous neighbouring states, enmeshing Türkiye in conflicts with Libya (Harchaoui, 2020), Greece (Republic of Türkiye, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, n.d.c), Nagorno-Karabakh (Yildiz, 2021), and Syria (Al-hilu, 2021) to name a few. While these conflagrations have absorbed a majority of scholarly attention in recent decades, Türkiye’s increasing levels of engagement with the de facto state of Abkhazia has gone understudied and relatively misunderstood by regional scholars and experts alike. This has resulted in a gap in the scholarly record on why Türkiye behaves the way it does towards Abkhazia. The goal of this paper is to bridge the gap in scholarly knowledge on Türkiye’s engagement with Abkhazia. By applying a wide-angle hybrid theoretical lens, incorporating the Multiple Hierarchy Model of Power Transition Theory & the Two Goods Theory of Foreign Affairs, I examine key events transpiring between Türkiye and Abkhazia from 2008-2022. I apply Theory-Testing Process Tracing, alongside rigorous document analysis in an attempt to better parse out the motivations and rationales surrounding Türkiye’s foreign policy towards this disputed region. The resulting causal mechanisms, tailor-made to map out each of the four events examined in this paper, reveal a partial explanatory match of my chosen theoretical lens and the behaviours exhibited by Türkiye in its dealings with Abkhazia. This forms a solid foundation from which to argue that Türkiye’s engagement with Abkhazia is driven largely by entrepreneurial and self-interested policies of extraction and influence-growing in Abkhazia.
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    How to deal with the rotten apple in the basket? Exploring membership suspension in regional councils of the Baltic Sea and the Arctics
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Stieger, Willi; Linsenmaier, Thomas, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    After the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Regional Councils (RCs) in the Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, and Arctic region suspended Russia’s membership. These are only three instances of an overall increasing use of membership suspension as a means of dealing with non-compliance among member states in International Organisations (IOs). Given their relatively high costs and the lack of scholarly evidence indicating that suspensions have an accountability impact, this growing application is puzzling, posing the central research question of why the member states of the three RCs suspended Russia. To answer the question, the thesis adopts an exploratory approach to identify factors determining the decision to suspend. This is done by conducting empirical research on membership suspension in the context of three regional soft law organisations — the Council of the Baltic Sea States, the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, and the Arctic Council. Conceptually, the study relies on existing literature on membership suspension. For theoretical guidance, the state’s decision to suspend is assumed to follow a logic of appropriateness or consequences. Drawing on empirical data from 12 expert interviews, the presence or absence of one or the other logic will be analysed along indicators, reflecting factors and considerations that motivate states to suspend. Since the research goal is to come up with more general explanations as to why IO member states suspend a non-compliant, the results have been compared across the three cases to ensure more generalisable findings. The thesis finds that the logic of appropriateness prevails in the RC member states’ decision to suspend. Furthermore, three explanatory indicators, namely cohesive identity, international symbolism and severity, have been explored, which deliver more widely applicable explanations of why IO members suspend. These findings bring more clarity to why states suspend and to understand the ongoing developments in the three RCs.
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    Fighting a different enemy. Anti-war protests in Russia through the lens of liminality
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Kolchyna, Viktoryia; Lepasaar Beecher, David Ilmar, juhendaja; Pavlova, Elena, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This research thesis analysed how anti-Ukrainian war resistance in Russia manifested in repressive settings to allow protesters to avoid criminal punishment. It attempted to reveal how the citizens leverage loopholes in the legislation by adopting liminality in order to continue to subvert the Kremlin’s pro-war discourse. The study identified the main types of liminal protests and found the major themes occurring in Russia in 2022 (full scale military operation in Ukraine). The research thesis also offered a pilot framework to measure the Liminality Score (the level of risk avoidance) quantitatively and applied the suggested framework on the slogans from protest in 2022 and from 2014 (annexation of Crimea). The results of quantitative assessment of liminality revealed that there was an increase in the usage of liminality in protests in 2022 compared to 2014 likely caused by the tightening of the Russian legislation related to protesting. The thematic analysis revealed the absence of alternative political forces in Russia in 2022 which could have become an alternative force to the ruling elite.
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    The adaptation of discourses on nuclear energy in times of crisis
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Pritchard, Thomas Luke; Morozov, Viatcheslav, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    The following research seeks to answer the question, how did the discourse surrounding nuclear energy adapt to account for the multiple crises present in 2022? To gain an answer to this question, a comparative study of the US and the UK is conducted, and their discourses over the course of January to October 2022 are analysed. This is done via a study of five mainstream media outlets within each state, using a critical discourse analysis (CDA) theory and methodology. Additionally, a conceptualisation of a crisis as an event which generates a dislocation in the hegemonic articulation of nuclear energy, that was previously dominant, is utilised. In a situation where multiple crises are present the different articulations have one crisis placed at the centre as the primary source of dislocation, and thus, as the crisis which a hegemonic articulation should address. In both the US and the UK, prior to the presence of multiple crises in 2022, there was a hegemonic articulation of nuclear energy, which passively supported it, but did not invest much into it and was allowing it to slowly decline. Through implementing a two-level CDA approach to the discourse in both states, first at the level of the text and then at the level of the ideologies these texts are part of, the new articulations can be accounted for. Over the course of 2022 it can be seen that in the US three new articulations emerge, two of these centre the climate crisis as the primary source of dislocation, ‘Nuclear Energy Against the Environment’ and ‘Nuclear Energy for the Environment’. The other centres the security crisis, ‘Nuclear Energy for Security’. In the UK four distinct articulations emerge, with two that centre the economic crisis as the primary source of dislocation, ‘Nuclear Energy for the Economy’ and ‘Nuclear Energy Against the Economy’. The other two centre the climate crisis, ‘Nuclear Energy for the Environment’ and ‘Nuclear Energy Against the Environment’. Finally, following the CDA framework, the second level of analysis is utilised to highlight the broad ideologies each articulation is factored into, which construct a reality that conveys the articulation as the most suited to take on the role of hegemonic articulation.
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    Authoritarian learning and diffusion: protests in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in 2022
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Aisarina, Zhibek; Makarychev, Andrey, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    In this thesis I study the authoritarian learning and authoritarian diffusion processes that served as a basis for some of the repressive measures taken by Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in response to mass protests in 2022. The thesis attempts to address the question as to ‘whether different types of authoritarian regimes are more amenable to learning or learn in different ways’ (Hall and Ambrosio 2017,154). It focuses on authoritarian regimes specifically in Central Asia. This study uses process tracing and content analysis in order to analyze the diffusion and learning mechanisms during and in the aftermath of the mass protests. I formulate 2 mechanisms for learning and diffusion that are not mutually exclusive and usually go in parallel in the Central Asian context. I analyze newspaper articles from news media outlets such as Radio Liberty Kazakh and Uzbek Services, Eurasianet, and Gazeta.uz. In addition, I analyze citizen journalism source, Youtube channel БАСЕ to make the process tracing more accurate. My findings are 1. Authoritarian learning and diffusion processes go in parallel, mostly diffusion framing authoritarian learning processes in Central Asia. 2. Kazakh and Uzbek regimes engage in authoritarian diffusion by initially framing mass protests as of socio-economic nature and instantly switching to framing them as a disorder organized by terrorists. 3. Diffusion process within the regional security organization (CSTO) context is more nuanced and needs to fit into the objective of fighting three evils: extremism, separatism, and terrorism. 4. Kazakh and Uzbek regimes engage in authoritarian learning when they base their calculations on when to switch to a terrorist threat narrative on the previous learning success or failure cases. 5. Kazakh and Uzbek regimes engage in learning from each other and domestic learning.
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    China's debt trap diplomacy on developing countries: the case study of Angola
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Uzoma, Stella Ogochukwu; Kursani, Shpend, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    China has been focusing on advancing its foreign policy toward developing countries through aid, loans, and investments since 2008. However, concerns have been raised about the amount and rate of these loans and the potential risks for debtor countries, as seen in cases like Sri Lanka and Uganda. This study investigates China's debt trap diplomacy on developing countries, with Angola as a case study. The study aims to determine the extent to which China has advanced its foreign policy goals towards Angola and how Angola's decision to borrow has advanced its interest. The study adopts a qualitative research approach, leveraging the liberalism theory. The findings reveal that China has indeed advanced its foreign policy goals toward Angola through its lending foreign policy which accounts for 75.9% of Angola's gross domestic product on average from 1995 to 2021. This development implies that Angola will show more loyalty to China's government and its counsel than any other international country lender. Moreover, Angola's borrowing decision has advanced its interest, as evidenced by the series of executed developmental projects, leading to rapid economic, social, and technological development. Despite increasing debt, this progress indicates a clear indication of progress, particularly after enduring years of the Cold War. Contrary to popular belief, the study concludes that China-Angola debt diplomacy is a win-win foreign policy relationship, benefiting both countries. Therefore, countries seeking financial aid from foreign sources should be cautious of the source of funds and the terms of return to prevent becoming trapped in debt unnecessarily. It is crucial for nations to consider all available possibilities when looking for financial assistance to maximize the likelihood of a successful conclusion for all parties involved.
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    Small state security engagement in a military alliance – the case of Estonia
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Pirsko, Pearu; Kursani, Shpend, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    A principal goal of a small state in contemporary International Relations is to ensure their survival, a task which is inherently more challenging for small states. Countering and mitigating those challenges often pushes small states towards alliance engagements. Up to now, most works analysing small state alliance engagement have quoted the benefits of multilateral alliance engagement for small states. In addition to sovereign deterrence creation measures, the theoretical discussion in the thesis hypothesises the use of bilateral security alliance relations as a separate tool of deterrence creation next to multilateral engagement. Such engagement is seen to be most widely used in times of increasing threat perception, with the increased speed and effectiveness of such commitments being more advantageous for small states than multilateral deterrence creation. This master’s thesis engages with a single-case study of Estonia, through three relevant time frames of increasing threat perception, to chart the ways and circumstances in which different methods of security engagement is used. To do this, a three way model of multilateral, bilateral, and sovereign deterrence creation methods is used, mostly focusing on charting the balance of multi- and bilateral security arrangements through the use of relevant elites’ speech acts and security documents. The results of the case study analysis indicate that the relevance of bilateral security arrangements within an alliance increases hand-in-hand with threat perception, with instances of higher security risks pushing a small state away from multilateral and toward bilateral arrangement. This thesis contributes to the literature of small state alliance engagement through highlighting the importance of bilateral engagements within an alliance as a tool of improving the speed and intensity of allied security engagement.
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    Views of the liberal international order in sub-Saharan Africa: reactions to Russian aggression in Ukraine
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Redic, Nicholas James; Morozov, Viatcheslav, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This thesis explores why and how sub-Saharan African states respond to revisionist challenges to, or contestation of, liberal international order (LIO). Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine since February 2022 represents a clear challenge to the norms established in the post-World War II and post-Cold War periods, as well as an attempt to mobilize global actors in opposition to LIO. In this thesis, I research three sub-Saharan African states’ responses to Russia’s actions by first determining my cases’ respective positions and fit within liberal international order and then observe how this leads to either condemnation, ambivalence or sympathy for contestation of LIO. Since I am looking at both Russia’s attempts to influence the international and the sub-Saharan African states’ responses to this, I incorporate power politics into my analysis. This approach enables me to explore the diverse set of methods and techniques that global actors use to both project various forms of influence internationally and to respond to such projection. Based on my analysis of three sub-Saharan states, Kenya, Senegal and South Africa, I conclude that fit within liberal international order, or lack thereof, does play a role in whether or not a state will demonstrate sympathy for the contestatory practices of a revisionist power.
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    The impact of war in Ukraine on the national identity of Russian-speakers in Estonia: the case study of Narva
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Demidova, Natalia; Erbsen, Heidi Ann, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to find out how the war in Ukraine affected the level of national identity of the Russian-speaking residents of Narva. Did the inhabitants of the border city become more tied with Estonia or, on the contrary, turned towards Russia after the outbreak of the war in Ukraine. A high level of national identity is important for any state, because it shows the unity of the population, its cohesion, a look in one direction. International and Estonian scientific literature was used as a theoretical basis for this master’s thesis. Empirical analysis is based on 50 individual interviews with residents of Narva of different ages and genders, and interviews with three focus groups consisting of residents of the city. All interviews were analyzed, and the respondents were divided into 3 age groups based on common features: the young generation, the middle-aged generation and the older generation. The study revealed that the society of Narva is not homogeneous, different age groups have different levels of national identity (from strong to weak), while even in the same age group there can be diametrically opposed attitudes towards Estonia. The main trend is that the younger respondents are, and the better their level of knowledge of the Estonian language, the less they are engaged in the Russian information field, the higher the level of their national identity. However, changes in the level of national identity are also noticeable among the older generation. In the Conclusion part, the author will share their thoughts on how to improve the national identity of those age groups in which the majority of respondents were with a low level of national identity. The results of thesis can be used in the future to develop strategies for integrating Narva residents into Estonian society, enhancing their national identity.
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    The role of NGOs and INGOs as norm advocates in Turkey’s climate change policies
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Girgin, Muharrem; Kursani, Shpend, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This thesis focuses on the role of climate NGOs and INGOs as advocates of international climate change norms in Turkey's climate change policies. The study seeks to analyze how international climate change norms affect and internalize national policies through NGOs and INGOs. For this purpose, the spiral model from a constructivist approach to norm literature has been applied to the field of climate change in this study. To investigate the impact of international climate change norms on the historical development of Turkey's climate change policies and the role of NGOs/INGOs, data collected from multiple sources were analyzed using qualitative research methods. The study concluded that, according to the theoretical model, the internalization process of international climate change norms in Turkey's national policies has not been completed. Climate change norms have reached the prescriptive status phase in Turkey's climate change policies but have not yet become a consistent-rule behavior in the national political structure. In addition, it has emerged that the role played by NGOs and INGOs for the compliance and internalization of international norms in Turkey's climate change policies can be considered in two dimensions. On the one hand, NGOs and INGOs have been identified as playing an effective and direct role as norm advocates in Turkey's domestic climate change policies and other relevant domestic policy areas. On the other hand, in the findings of this thesis, it has been determined that NGOs and INGOs have an indirect and limited effect on Turkey's access to international climate change policies and agreements.
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    Trauma and resilience within Ukraine: how the Russian full-scale invasion in 2022 effectuated changes in identity
    (Tartu Ülikool, 2023) Adler, Michael; Makarychev, Andrey, juhendaja; Tartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduste valdkond; Tartu Ülikool. Johan Skytte poliitikauuringute instituut
    This thesis aims to show the juxtaposition that War creates in the formulation of creating a new collective national identity in Ukraine via the markers of trauma and resilience, especially within the youth of Ukraine, who have not yet experienced trauma at the hands of Russia. A second point of the thesis is to provide clarity as to the interconnectedness of the concepts of trauma, resilience, and identity. The interplay between these three concepts rests upon War creating a traumatogenic event, which rapidly and significantly alters identity. Trauma has the ability to either amplify vulnerability or can facilitate the development of resiliency which subsequently becomes a defining characteristic of the collective national identity. Interviews were conducted on site in Ukraine from March 17 until March 30. A total of 14 interviews were conducted: 5 face to face and 9 via Zoom. Respondents were all Ukrainian citizens who were between ages 19-30, meaning that they fit the definition of youth and Post- Soviet. Thematic analysis (Maguire and Delahunt, 2017) was used to code themes from the interviews. 3 concepts produced 3 theoretical frameworks, each linking with one another. The triad of lay trauma theory (Alexander, 2004), resilience theory (van Breda, 2001) (Bourbeau, 2017), and social identity theory (Hogg, 2018) were applied. The results produced via thematic analysis consisted of the validation that the trauma of the full-scale invasion has had the effect of unification of both Ukrainians as well as political institutions and civil society. A shared trauma coupled with proximity to displaced individuals ignored previously held prejudices pertaining to regional differences. A schism from the narrative of “one people” within Russkiy Mir (Kasianov, 2022) had the effect of returning to previous markers such as individuality, open-mindedness, tolerance, and independence. The research conducted has shown that the changes in identity through trauma and the adherence to democratic resilience were sudden and impactful. Limitations remain in the form of answering whether these changes are, indeed, long-term.