Eesti panganduse areng päevalehtede juhtkirjade põhjal 1993-2005



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Banks manage significant part of the public financial assets and there exists a huge interdependency of each other. Therefore it is important that the banking market is well- regulated and supervised, the clients are informed about the principles of performance of the financial world, the bankers are hep to the resposibility they have taken as well to the society's expectation of the banks role. The good reputation of Estonian banks is elicited the changes in social values. The banks have to assure the improvement of the living standard of their private clients and the expanding business of corporates. On the other hand the banks must not act aggressively and are expected to foresee future problems. In the theoretical viewpoints of this thesis trust issues originated from bank-customer relationships are looked into. Trust between a bank and society is constructed through different aspects. Reasons why creation and maintaining of trust relationships have decisive importance for the banks existance are shown. Another thoretical viewpoint is a correlation between social trauma and development of Estonian Banking industry where changes in the banking during different stages of development are described. The first branch of study of the current thesis consists of the issues about banking in the media texts during 1993-2005 and the changes in those issues. The similarities and differences between Äripäev and common daily newspapers in reverberating the banking issue are also examined. In the process of text analysis the qualitative analysis was used. We were especially interested in the propositions, problems and comments in the framework of the epoch of development of banking and the processes going on in society related with the consumption of the banking services. The analysis allowed to observe the time-varying of the reverberating of banking issues and the opinions on banks. During 1993-2005 the reverberating of banking has gone through a substantial change. Before 1995 for the society the banks existed mainly for safekeeping their clients money. Some of the banks did not manage to do it, so the society distrusted banks. In 1997-1999 the role of banks started to diversify. After the opening of the Tallinn Stock Exchange and rising stock prices the banks were taken as highly esteemed and hyper-reliable. Since 2001 main role of the banks in the economy has moved towards a service-oriented organisation. During a year 2005 a social values approach was introduced and banks were expected to behave as responsible corporate citizens. Public protested against aggressive sales methods and high prices of the banking products. Discussion in the newspapers was rather complex. Following problems and issues were handled: Estonian state and Bank of Estonia as regulators and supervisors; business of the state commercial bank and state´s cooperation with commercial banks; banking market and market competition; customer service of the bank and consumer education; loan market; ethical issues related to the banks and banking business in general. Most active newspaper in reverbating banking issues was Äripäev. Unlike other newspapers Äripäev has offered solutions to the problems raised, for instance rating of the banks for measuring creditworthiness. Second branch of study was finding out factors what create legitimacy for the banks. As a result of the research following factors were found to be important: ownership of the bank; management of the bank; size of the bank; public opinion; state/regulator, independent auditor. Main conclusion was that newspapers as a representatives of the public opinion had a significant role in the devolpment of the banking market. Newspapers reverbate different issues what have been done well and what could be done better. Same time positive public opinion has assisted banks and state in carrying on important developments like second pillar pension reform. I sincerely hope that cooperation between banks and newspapers will be more expansive and friendly. This would help to make future devolopment of the Estonian society more balanced.


H Social Sciences (General), magistritööd