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dc.contributor.advisorVihalemm, Triin, juhendaja
dc.contributor.authorKaurson, Signe
dc.contributor.otherTartu Ülikool. Sotsiaalteaduskondet
dc.contributor.otherTartu Ülikool. Ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakondet
dc.date2007
dc.date.accessioned2010-10-21T08:02:11Z
dc.date.available2010-10-21T08:02:11Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.identifierKaurson, Signe (2007) Eesti ettevõtja sotsiaalne portree 21. sajandi algul. Masters thesis, Tartu Ülikool.
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10062/15691
dc.descriptionThis Master’s thesis titled „The social portrait of the Estonian entrepreneurs at the beginning of the 21st century” focuses with the social position of entrepreneurs in the Estonian society at the beginning of the 21st century. The promotion and supporting of business activity has an important role in the strategic objectives of both the EU and Estonia. At the same time, the business activity in Estonia is only as half as high as in the other European countries. A broader objective of the research was to determine the social factors that have caused the low business activity in Estonia, and to point out communicative possibilities to increase the activity. The research task was to describe and systematically analyse the social background and motivation of entrepreneurs as well as their reflection in the media. For this purpose, I developed a theoretically founded framework called the ‘social portrait’ in the present paper, comprising of the social resources, world of values and attitude aspects of entrepreneurs. In the theoretical part of the research I dealt with the influencing factors of social stratification as well as discourses of relations between an individual and social groups, and those related to the construction of social reality. In order to characterise the entrepreneurs’ social portrait, I used a statistical analysis of representative sociological data in relation to the Estonian society. In order to open the entrepreneurs’ motivation, I used unstandardised poll (focus group), the media representation was researched by using an unstandardised content analysis of texts. The research reflects in all its empiric parts the social conditions in Estonia in 2005. As a result of the research it appeared that entrepreneurs are, compared to the Estonian average, substantially wealthier by their economic capital that is first of all expressed in a higher living standard and the signification of investments into it. In the context of social relations the entrepreneurs distinguish by the better quality of their relations and a higher than average extent of being an opinion leader, the latter applies to the fields of technology, economy and politics. At the same time, entrepreneurs have less possibilities to ask the others for help, therefore they mostly have to rely upon themselves. It appeared from the analysis of the world of values that for an entrepreneur, the values related to self determination (freedom), self enhancement and power are of biggest importance. Less valued by entrepreneurs is a hedonistic, comfortable and simply nice existence. By their attitudes, entrepreneurs are, compared to others, more optimistic, more positive towards changes, and support an active participation in the social life. At the same time, entrepreneurs are more critical than the average with regard to perceiving dangers related to the Estonian society where they see as most important problems the social satisfaction of people (outflow of brains and labour force), the low level of political culture, and the continuing increase in social inequality. The identity approach of entrepreneurs is mostly based on ethnic background and compared to the others, a stronger coherence of colleagues and persons of the same age or same generation, and a regionally stronger coherence with the people of Nordic countries are more important. As a result of focus groups it appeared that the motivators for being an entrepreneur are first of all related to the world of values, openness to changes, and individualistic values expressing self progression, like freedom, self enhancement, wealth and having power. As most important problems, entrepreneurs point out social resources: lack of required knowledge and a dominating attitude by the state. Being an entrepreneur does not offer advantages in the form of a higher social status; the aspect of social prestige and acknowledgement has disappeared over the last ten years. In the media representation of entrepreneurs the hierarchy within the group of entrepreneurs appeared in the context of symbolic capital. The media is presenting merchants and political elite first of all through their power over the other members of the collective body, by fetishing and fixing thereby the symbolic capital of the elite. Thus, in the media representation of small entrepreneurs the discourse of a loser is prevailing. At the same time, entrepreneurship as a personal quality and values characteristic to entrepreneurship (freedom, self enhancement) are presented in a positive and acknowledging manner in the media. As social factors increasing the business activity several possibilities can be pointed out on the basis of the results of the present research. In the context of the social position and increasing the welfare, entrepreneurship is most attractive and, on the other hand, most accessible for the target group of specialists and civil servants. For managers and top specialists there is a danger of losing in their social status, at the same time, the higher level of their know-how would enable bringing a new quality into the business. Improving the problematic relations between the state and the entrepreneurs could be made by communicative means. Governmental structures should change the attitudes of their employees towards entrepreneurs, highlight the role of a civil servant as a service person, and the responsibility for equal treatment and application of founded requirements. The state also could contribute to the improvement of the reputation of entrepreneurs and promote becoming an entrepreneur in the publicity. From the practical side, governmental structures should pay more attention to the possibilities of increasing the economic and management related knowledge of entrepreneurs. The possibility of the media is the principle of balance. The positive context of being an entrepreneur, success stories and positive values related to entrepreneurship on the level of an individual and the society should be highlighted more. Secondly, the non-elite (incl. smaller entrepreneurs) should be treated as socially vital subjects – not presenting them mostly in the context of social injustice and in the role of being suppressed. In increasing the representativeness of entrepreneur’s prestige and interests a decisive role lies with the activation and increase of power of entrepreneurs’ associations. As a result of the present research it can be stated that particularly the small entrepreneurs do not have a representative organisation having a practical supporting role and being their channel of expression in the media and publics.en
dc.description.urihttp://tartu.ester.ee/record=b2159030~S1*est
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.publisherTartu Ülikoolet
dc.relationhttp://mail.jrnl.ut.ee:8080/283/
dc.subjectH Social Sciences (General)
dc.subjectmagistritöödet
dc.subjectmajanduset
dc.subjectettevõtluset
dc.subjectettevõtjadet
dc.titleEesti ettevõtja sotsiaalne portree 21. sajandi algulet
dc.typeThesisen
dc.typeNonPeerReviewed


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