Alkoholivastase kampaania “Palju sina jood?” meediasisendite raamistamine ajakirjanduses
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The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to find out how Estonian mainstream media frames the messages of anti-alcohol social campaign "Palju Sina jood?" organized by the National Institute Of Health Development in 2009. The research covers 23 articles from Postimees, Eesti Päevaleht, Eesti Ekspress and Äripäev that appeared between 9.November 2009 and 1.June 2010 in order to analyse message framing during and after the campaign. To determine how newspapers wrote about Estonians' drinking problems and also the campaign (how the messages of the campaign were interpreted, sent to audience) the framing theory was implemented. According to the framing theory of public opinion, journalists and news agencies construct frames that reflect cultural narratives in the whole society. Journalists are fundamental influencers when news' readers interpret the world and social problems around them. To determine the frames that media was using when writing about Estonians' binge drinking and the anti-alcohol campaign, the author used framing analysis according to William A. Gamson's approach - the author read all the articles at least twice and determined frame's signature elements – i.e. framing devices (metaphors, depictions, exemplars, catch-phrases, visual images) and reasoning devices (problem's roots, consequences, principles). Generalizing all the frame's signature elements the author found 4 following frames: "binge drinking as cultural, social and psychological inevitability" (with 3 sub-frames), "alcohol and the state" (with 2 counter-frames), "health risks of abusing alcohol" and "pseudoproblem". The author also determined all the possible solutions for solving Estonia's binge drinking problem that could be found from the articles. When comparing frames detected from the media with messages of the campaign, it appears that media has a negative influence on campaign's key message - the message of Estonians drinking more than they think, consuming 11,9 litres of pure alcohol a year and taking second place in European alcohol consumption rankings. Media frames are therefore trying to marginalize statistical results, blaming Finnish tourists and certain social groups to explain shocking statistics. The frames also try to normalize heavy alcohol consumption when explaining these tendencies with Estonia's regional culture (Estonians have always drunk much), psychological aspects (drinking is a result of boredom, ignorance and habits) and social aspects (certain groups of society e.g. heavy drinkers from small villages are used to drink and that is considered normal). The only message the media frames fully support is "health risks of alcohol consumption" that also influences Estonia's economy and social sphere. When trying to find solutions for Estonians' binge drinking problem, it appears that professionals, anti-alcohol activists, scientists and doctors think the state is fully responsible and should take steps to toughen laws concerning selling, buying and advertising alcohol. While professionals blame the state, journalists, bloggers and writers find that the state shouldn't restrict buying and consuming alcohol as much as it currently does because it is considered to be the reason why Estonians drink at home and stock a home bar with alcohol. The only suitable solution for the state is to get involved in prevention of binge drinking instead of dealing with consequences. The state should also offer more opportunities for the citizens to spend their free time. In conclusion, the research shows that the anti-alcohol campaign should find more positive approach addressing and explaining the problem and should also try to not criticize and shock their target group because of the tendency to block receiving new information which can be actually very useful in order to reduce alcohol consumption. While organizing the following campaigns National Institution Of Health Development should also consider media's tendency to simplify the problem, to have certain biases and attitudes towards alcohol related topics.
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