Eelkooliealiste laste intervjueerimistehnikate ohud ja võimalused
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This Master`s thesis named Dangers and Possibilities of preschool children interviewing techniques focuses on how to interview a child in the most effective way). Discussion about children rights (children right to share their opinion for example) is a constant topic. To assure correct and undistorted publicity for children voice it is important for questioner to possess the most effective interviewing techniques. Data that is analyzed in the present thesis includes 7 interviews carried out by educators (2 interviews) and by author of the present paper (5 interviews). In order to establish the most effective interviewing technique and to map out appropriate questions qualitative text analysis is combined with conversation analysis. In more detail, three main aspect were observed during conversation analysis: • listening to each other, • control of understanding, • turn-taking in conversation. Similarly, text analysis can be divided into three categories including: • analysis of interrogative words, • effectiveness of interaction, • answers to questions. In additon, climate of interview created by interviewer was also analyzed. In order to clarify general trends some of the qualitative data was quantified and placed on graphics. Results of the analysis indicated that key factor of child interviewing is active listening and question formulation should be adjusted to child competences. Hence, active listening questions are important because: • those questions help questioner to understand child`s social competence. • By asking active listening questions, interviewer is able to use vocabulary that is understandable to child. • By asking active listening questions interviewer shows his or hers earnest interest to interviewee who is therefore encouraged to talk. • Questions that are based on active listening enable to gather more detailed information. (One is able to detect key aspects for child.) • Those questions help to focus current subject and to avoid disorder. • Active listening helps to avoid misunderstandings. • Active listening questions help child to better express oneself, to reflect one’s experiences in more detail and hence improve one’s social competence. Interviewing a child associates with different aspects starting with ethics and ending with usage of game like opportunities. Hence, method variability could enhance conversation between interviewer and child. By using current thesis, one could develop the topic further. It could be useful to compose guidance for child interviewers that should include following chapters: • subjects that can be discussed without harming child’s interests. • Overview of techniques that affect children (behavioral patterns that should be avoided in order to minimize the impact of our own thoughts to child). • Questioning techniques and guidance for bringing out child’s self reflection. • Overview of game like techniques that could promote or hold back the course of conversation. • Techniques and advices that would increase effectiveness of child interviewing . Such Estonian guidance would be the first in its kind. Hence, it could simplify and increase efficiency of bringing out truthful voice of “little people”.
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