Uudistemagasin kui sotsiaalne ressurss teismelistele. Kvalitatiivne uurimus telesaate „Reporter” retseptsioonist



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The aim of the present MA thesis “The news magazine as a social resource for teenagers. A qualitative study about the reception of the television news programme “Reporter””is to investigate the news reception of Estonian teenagers. The research object is complex, consisting of the following components: • television as the channel presenting the audiovisual text; • the news genre and the other stories of the news magazine; • teenage children as recipients. The research questions are the following: • To which extent do the stories of the news magazine function as cohesive and integral audiovisual text for children, and in which cases and for what reasons do children notice only single fragments of picture or sound? • What are the factors that create meaning and cause distancing for the children during the reception of the news magazine? • To what extent can a news programme be considered as a social resource for teenagers? The novelty of the research focus of the thesis determined the necessity for developing a methodology for acquiring as extensive results as possible for the research problems at hand. It had to be taken into consideration that the reception and interpretation of a television programme can be perceived as a continuous interaction between the viewer and the programme. What I thus meant by the efficiency of the chosen method is that its results clarify how the reception and interpretation of the stories has been influenced by the content of the news programme, on the one hand, and by the experiential background of the viewers themselves, on the other hand, as well as by the interaction between the two. It was therefore necessary to analyse the stories of the news magazine and their audiovisual composition, as well as their reception by teenagers. In order to achieve a greater reliability of the method, I decided on combining methods. The aim of the pilot research was to observe the efficiency of the ethnographic observation and the in-depth interview with regard to eliciting the empirical material. As a result I saw the need for additional methods. Trying out and combining different methods during the research process, I developed a complex method, which consists of the following components: • Formation of groups for the reception research • The recording of the news magazine “Reporter” and the selection of stories according to certain criteria • Ethnographic observation of the viewing situation – as a video recording • Filling in the scales of comprehensibility and interest • Focus group interview • Written account of three most memorable stories • Detailed transcription of the audiovisual text of the stories of the news magazine and the observation situation • Detailed qualitative content analysis of the collected texts. Linguistic method. In the reception analysis I relied mostly on Jensen’s system of text categories and the theory of super-themes, and on Höijer’s perception of cognitive schemes. For the analysis of the mutual coherence of the audio and visual texts of the news magazine I also employed the semiotic approach. Finally I drew conclusions as to the extent to which the video stories functioned as a social resource for the children, and provided evaluation about the developed methodology for the purpose of studying the field at hand. The more important conclusions with regard to the reception of each story, proceeding from the reception analysis, would be the following: • From the “Bronze Soldier” story the children adopted the conflict framing, and during interpreting made use of the super-themes of “physical conflict” and “Estonian- Russian friction (in a historical sense)”. • The reception of the “Traffic Accident” clearly showed dramatic shortcomings in the news text, where the foregrounding of only one party of the accident created misconceptions and above all activated the employment of person schemes during interpreting the sole actor. The children used the super-theme of “traffic accidents” and withdrew from the content of the story to the private or media sphere. • “The distribution of portfolios” was positioned into the context of the super-theme of “elections” as a follow-up news item. As a social resource the news story served a very superficial purpose. • The interpretation of the “Kayak Story” reveals the emerging of schemes related to the extraordinary event and the person performing it. Through the “Kayak Story” the children reinforced their national pride and the identity of a uniform interpretive community due to the remarkable achievement of an Estonian man. • Interpreting the “Tourism Farm”, the children did not use the cognitive schemes which would have provided meaning for the content-related themes of the story, and perceived the story within more general super-themes. • The reception of “”Reporter” in India” provided evidence in support of the fact that themes which are emphasised both visually and audibly are better remembered and create meaning. The usage of familiar cognitive schemes helped to better reinforce the story or its certain parts in memory – it enabled the girls to remember the story better. • “Fake photos of celebrities” above all activated the usage of person schemes, but also of event and role schemes. The story complemented children’s experiential base with instructions regarding a more critical reading of the reality constructed by journalists. Using the selected complex of methods was generally efficient, because it enabled to see how the interpretation of the stories was influenced by the audiovisual text of the story, on the one hand, and by the experiential background of the recipients themselves, on the other hand, as well as by the interaction created between the two. The complex usage of methods helped to increase the reliability of the collected empirical material – the results of one method provided supportive information for the results acquired with other methods. Using the selected methodology, I received clear data as to the parts of which stories carry a meaning for children and what these meanings are; why children distance themselves from certain themes and in which cases can a news programme be conceived as a social resource for teenagers.


H Social Sciences (General)