Eesti laste käsitlused reklaamist reklaamveebi näitel
In the modern society of market economy children become earlier the consumers who make their own purchase decisions. It is caused by increasing financial independence of children and by the expansion of marketing aimed at children. Estonian consumer society has evolved differentially from the western societies (Keller 2004) and that is why marketing activities aimed at Estonian children are still expanding. However, the tendency seems to follow the model of modern consumer societies. Advertising is an important link between products and consumption. Advertising informs people on what is available for purchase, but in addition to that commercials transmit values that one could communicate about him/herself by consuming certain products. In consumer societies buying products has become an important part of constructing one’s identity. Children differ from adults by their ability to think and that is why they understand commercials differently and their attitude towards advertising is different. Internet as a medium is becoming more essential in people’s (and also children’s) everyday life and for that reason the focus of this BA thesis (titled “Estonian children’s approaches towards advertising based on commercial websites”) is on children’s approaches to advertising based on commercial websites. Such combined approach enables to study the increasing role of Internet advertising in the lives of children and examine children’s comprehension of advertising in a broader sense. The objective of this paper is to examine what kind of consumers Estonian children are considering the Estonian context and how they understand the nature of advertising. The empirical part of my work consists of conclusions made on analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 children. 7 of the interviewees were 7-8 years old and the other half was 12-13 years old. The in-depth interviews have been analyzed using the methods of cross-case and case-by-case analysis. The first principal research question focuses on Internet advertising. From the results it can be concluded that respondents, in spite of their age, can discern Internet commercials from other content on the condition that advertising is distinctly outlined. Hidden marketing techniques rest unnoticeable. Younger respondents discern Internet commercials based on their physical attributes, older ones define commercials by their essential qualities. Children’s attitude towards Internet advertising is rather neutral, probably due to the relative modesty of the latter (i.e. compared with television advertising). It is apparently due to the prior that children themselves don’t feel affected by Internet advertising. The second principal research question focuses on children’s comprehension of advertising and on the connections between advertising and consumption. Similarly to Internet advertising younger respondents discern advertising by the physical attributes of commercials, whereas older respondents do it using essential qualities. Younger respondents’ attitude towards advertising is more positive, while older respondents expressed more negative attitude. The analysis of answers reveals that respondents’ attitude overall are rather positive and negative attitudes concern certain commercials on emotional level. Most of the respondents find that commercials tend to lie. Younger respondents thought so due to personal experiences, older ones based their opinion on rational and logical discussion. Respondents did not see an effect of advertising on their purchase decisions. Analyzing the responses it can be nevertheless concluded that advertising affects their consumer behavior more than they realize. Respondents think that the main purpose of advertising is informing and clear comprehension of persuasive intent can be noticed only among older respondents. For that reason they are unable to use cognitive defense against the influence of advertising which makes them more susceptive to advertising (Brucks et al. 1988). Although children claim that the role of things is not an important part of one’s identity, they understand the symbolic value of products (especially older respondents) and at least partially things are a way to rate other persons. The topic needs certainly further research. First of all it is important to focus on children’s perceptions of the values transmitted by commercials and study the role of advertising as a mediator of the symbolic values of products. Connections between families’ financial situation and children’s attitudes to consumption also deserve further attention.
H Social Sciences (General), bakalaureusetööd, lapsed, reklaam, tarbimine, tarbimisühiskond, infoühiskond, Internet