Avalik-õigusliku ringhäälingu legitimatsioon: Eesti kogemus rahvusvahelises kontekstis
The purpose of this theoretical research "Legitimation of public-service broadcasting - Estonian experience in international context" is to analyse the legitimation of the Estonian public service broadcasting and the factors that affected the process. For a broader background basis, the development of international media politics and, in more detail, European Union media politics are observed. On the basis of this analysis possible solutions for a stronger legitimation of PsB in the Republic of Estonia is offered. Defining and implementation of sufficient and stabile PsB (including a financial scheme for funding) has been problematic during the full re-independence period of the Republic of Estonia. Until now a working complex solution has not been implemented. In this paper it is assumed that the obstacle for finding positive solutions for PsB in Estonian media politics is the lack of consensus about PsB in the society. To get a better grounds for understanding PsB legitimation process in Estonia, this paper observes the general historic development of the PsB in 20th Century, the creation of European Union (media) legislation, and the change of the public service media regulation acts in correlation to the development of society. In addition, the paper gives an overview of the current EU media policy's crises, and methods for solving these crisis which have been adapted by the EU. In addition to theoretical sources, the paper is also based on the European practice and the results of the work of Estonian workgroups that have been dealing with the subject of broadcasting (primarily PsB). This paper analyses the main issues and the paper itself is part of an attempt to strengthen the PsB legitimation in the Estonian media landscape. In detail local processes of political and economical legitimation are observed. Main focus is on development, adoption in Parliament and practical failure of the Development Plan for Estonian Radio and Television for 2003-2005. The theoretical resource for the work is Jürgen Habermas' communication theory and concept of public sphere, which has been also the starting point for work of Croteau and Hoynes also used. These researches can be summarized as follows: a) the existence of a developed public sphere is important for developing civi society and democracy; b) media has an important role in the development of the public sphere; c) the development of the public sphere is the public interest; d) the basis for the existence of private media is primarily a profit oriented activity; e) the purpose of the public service media (primarily broadcast) is to serve public interest; f) the political-administrative system sees economy (incl. mediaeconomy foremost as liberal and needing as little regulation as possible; at the same time regulation is necessary to guarantee the public sector media (broadcast) activities; g) the basis of this conflict is the scarce legitimacy of the PsB in the political- administrative system. Considering that a) the general EU (economic) policy is oriented towards the enlargment of genera libelarisation and free competition; b) EU mediapolitics is subordinate to economic politics; c) the defining of PsB purposes and tasks has been given to the sole competency of nation-states; meaning that EU will not draw any guidance that would specify the support towards PsB (services) or that would be compulsory for the nation- state legislation; d) the history and position in the society of the PsB is different in the old and new (transition countries) EU member states; e) the economic size and capacity of the nation-states` market is different the development of the PsB in Estonia is problematic because of the small size of the market and the lack of PsB tradition. To overcome this problem stronger legitimation of the PsB should be considered. For that it is necessary to enforce the communication between all parties to find a consensus.
H Social Sciences (General), magistritööd, avalik-õiguslik ringhääling, finantseerimine, eurointegratsioon, meediapoliitika, kriisid, üleminekuühiskond, Eesti, legitiimsus, majanduslikud aspektid, poliitilised aspektid, avalik valik, vabaturumajandus, kodanikuühiskond