# Täisarvuliste maatriksite Smithi normaalkuju

## Date

2013

## Authors

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## Publisher

Tartu Ülikool

## Abstract

This bachelor’s thesis gives an overview of the Smith normal form for integral matrices,
i.e. matrices whose entries are integers. This normal form is a diagonalization that
exists for any integral matrix and, moreover, is uniquely determined. It was first used in
the 1861 paper by H.J.S. Smith which considered solving linear diophantine equations
and congruences. The Smith normal form has seen an extensive number of applications
since then, including diophantine analysis, integer programming, linear systems theory
and module theory over principal ideal domains.
The thesis itself is a review of fundamentals and contains no original research, but it
does strive to be as elementary and self-contained as possible. There are altogether three
chapters. The first one introduces a number of definitions and results from elementary
matrix algebra and number theory that will be needed later on. The second chapter introduces
the notion of equivalent matrices. It also contains the main result of the thesis, the
proof that every integral matrix has a Smith normal form, i.e. is equivalent to a specific
kind of diagonal matrix. There is also a subchapter on certain invariants of equivalent
matrices, namely determinantal divisors and invariant factors, which are used to prove
that the Smith normal form is unique. Finally, the process of finding the Smith normal
form of an integral matrix is illustrated by a simple numerical example. The last chapter
contains an overview of three applications: solving linear diophantine equations, a
method for analysing a certain class of combinatorial problems and the fundamental
theorem of finitely generated Abelian groups.

## Description

## Keywords

Smithi normaalkuju, maatriksalgebra, Morris Newman, W. Holtzmann, Mati Kilp, maatriksite ekvivalentsus, diofantiline võrrandisüsteem, Abeli rühmad, bakalaureusetööd