Balti riikide energiaalane koostöö lähtudes liberaalsest valitsustevahelisuse teooriast
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The Baltic countries do not form a homogenous region in terms of energy mixes, supply patterns and policy objectives. Estonia is largely self-sufficient depending on the domestic oil shale production. Natural gas accounts for a slightly more than 10% of the Estonia’s primary energy balance. Lithuania has turned from a regional nuclear power into a largely gas consuming country while attempting to achieve an ambitious „energy independence” objective through various large scale measures: a new nuclear power plant in Visagina, an LNG terminal in Klaipeda, electricity and gas interconnections with Sweden and Poland. Although Latvia has a rather high level of single source gas consumption (around 30%), it wants to become a regional gas distribution hub. Latvia’s central location among the Baltics and, more importantly, vast underground storage potential provides a considerable advantage in the search for regional energy security solutions. The Baltic energy, however have considerable similarities and commonly shared broad challenges. The major challenges and objectives that the Baltics need to address are security of supply, competitive markets and sustainability. The integration of Baltic states „energy islands” into the European „energy mainland” is crucial for European Union energy policy. The European Union has facilitated the adoption of the Baltic Energy Market Integration Plan. Although the first steps have been already taken in electricity interconnections, the next phase would focus more on regional gas market integration. In this regard, interconnections between Estonia and Finland, and Lithuania and Poland are planned. The idea of the LNG-terminal has been put high on agenda in the Baltic states to become one of the important regional objectives with the help of potential EU financing. It shows, how liberal intergovernmentalism has proven right that, eventhough states are declaring cooperation, in the end of the day, the domestic interest are more important. Security of energy supply for the Baltic countries is of strategic importance from a geopolitical as well as an economic perspective. Based on relevant literature and scientific papers, it comes out that, although different strategies and development plans have great potential, they are not able to take advantage of national interest. Obstacles aris from uneven and limited interest in participating of projects and the uncertainty of the measurements. As well as the lack of specific indicators and resources.